List of Khoisan languages

From Academic Kids

Here are all recorded Khoisan languages, the indigenous languages of southern Africa. Most Khoisan languages are endangered, and several are moribund or extinct.

Each heading below is a branch of a putative Khoisan language family. However, the Khoisan relationship is hypothetical, and the term is often used for convenience without any implication of linguistic validity, much as Papuan or Australian are. The inclusion of Hadza is especially doubtful.

Contents

Hadza

Sandawe

Khoe (or Central Khoisan)

Khoekhoe

North Khoekhoe

  • Nama (Ethnonym Khoekhoegowab)

South Khoekhoe

Tshu-Khwe

East Tshu-Khwe

Central
Northeast
  • Tsoa (A dialect cluster including Cire Cire and Kua)

West Tshu-Khwe

Northwest
Southwest

Ta'a-!Kwi (or Southern Khoisan)

Ta'a

!Kwi

Ju (or Northern Khoisan)

Unclassified

Hua

  • H (Possibly related to the Ju languages)

Kwadi

  • Kwadi (Extinct. Likely a distant member of the Khoe family)

Other

Hai‖om

A Hai‖om language is listed in most Khoisan references. A century ago the Hai‖om spoke a Ju dialect, probably close to !Kung, but they now speak a divergent dialect of Nama. Thus their language is variously said to be extinct or to have 16,000 speakers, to be Ju or to be Khoe. They are known as the Saa by the Nama, and this is the source of the word San.

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